Friday, 31 May 2013

Philippine Bullary I

[UPDATE (09.05.2016): Text of the bull Illius fulti praesidio corrected.]

The ecclesiastic history of the Philippines, undoubtedly, begins with the arrival of the Spaniards. Although the Portuguese were the first Iberians and, therefore, the first Europeans to have reached the Philippines, it was the Spaniards who eventually settled in the Islands, whether or not this was in violation of the demarcation line set by the Treaty of Tordesillas on 7 June 1494 between representatives of the Spanish and Portuguese Crowns, which was subsequently subverted by the Alexandrine Bulls, issued by Alexander VI, in favour of the Catholic Monarchs: the papal brief Inter caetera dated 3 May 1493; the minor bull Inter caetera dated 4 May 1493 (but believed to have been edited later in June); the minor bull Eximiae devotionis dated 3 May 1493 (but believed to have been edited later in July); and the bull Dudum siquidem dated 26 September 1493.

Christianity arrived in the Philippines with Fernão de Magalhães on Passion Sunday, 17 March 1521 in the island of Homonhon. Amongst Iberians, Passion Sunday is called domingo de Lázaro, for which reason (and not the stupid reason that 17 March is the feast day of Saint Lazarus, whose feast day falls on 17 December in Western Christendom) the islands of Samar and Leyte, and other neighbouring islands were called the archipiélago de San Lázaro. 

[Note: It would be ill-advised to Anglicise domingo de Lázaro as Lazarus Sunday, as no such liturgical day occurs in the calendars of the East and West, at least amongst Anglophones. The East, in particular, has a Lazarus Saturday, which falls on the Saturday before Palm Sunday, by which virtue Palm Sunday is sometimes loosely referred to as Lazarus Sunday. The discrepancy in the reckoning, therefore, would render the translation confusing. The term is still used in the Philippines, though sparsely now.]

However, the official beginning of Christianity in the Philippines is dated on Easter Sunday, 31 March 1521, in the heavily disputed island of Mazagua. (What most historians fail to realise is that it is utterly nonsensical, not to mention unimaginable, for Catholic subjects of a Catholic Realm to somehow fail to assist at Mass on the two previous Sundays, Passion Sunday and Palm Sunday.) This Mass, which merited to be written in the chronicles of Antonio Pigafetta for the apparent reason that natives were present in it, was celebrated by Padre Pedro Valderrama. 

Before Magalhães perished in Mactan at the cutlass of Lapu-Lapu, he was able to witness Padre Valderrama baptise Humabon, king of Cebu, who took the baptismal name of Carlos, in honour of the Spanish king; and his wife (unnamed in the chronicles of Pigafetta, but variously referred to as Humahoy, Maniwantiwan, and Amihan), who took the baptismal name of Juana, in honour of the Spanish king’s mother. Their captain killed, the remainder of the fleet fled, leaving behind some of their comrades. From their flight from Cebu until the Victoria docked once again at Sanlúcar de Barrameda on 6 September 1522, the expedition was led by Gonzalo Gómez de Espinosa and captained by Juan Sebastián Elcano, having both been chosen in Mindanao in the aftermath of the battle.

The Spanish Crown would later send out other expeditions: García Jofre de Loaísa on 24 July 1525; Sebastián Cabot on 3 April 1526; Álvaro de Saavedra on 31 October 1527; after a thirteen-year hiatus during which Spain respected the Treaty of Zaragoza concluded on 22 April 1529, Ruy López de Villalobos on 1 November 1542; and twenty-two years later, Miguel López de Legazpi on 21 November 1564. With Legazpi came the Augustinians led by Fray Andrés de Urdaneta (who was convinced to accompany the expedition in order to evangelise New Guinea, and later was disillusioned because New Guinea was not part of the itinerary), who would later pioneer the evangelisation of the Philippine Islands, an apostolate that would later be expanded by subsequent missionaries.

The entire Philippine Islands, then under the vigorous missionary activity of the Spanish friars, were placed under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Mexico. The distance between the Philippines and Mexico made it extremely difficult for the spiritual administration of the new Spanish territory. The acephalous Philippine Church would eventually have its first head in the person of the Dominican Fray Domingo de Salazar, when Gregory XIII, by virtue of the Bull Illius fulti praesidio issued on 6 February 1579, erected the parish of Manila into a diocese, suffragan to the Archdiocese of Mexico.

After a tumultuous yet very fruitful reign, including an intrigue with the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Mexico (on the issue of who should exercise inquisitorial powers in the Philippines), Fray Domingo died on 4 December 1594. After having gone to Spain to defend himself before the King against his detractors, and after having successfully done so, including convincing the King to divide the diocese into four (a suggestion that would later be approved by Rome), he died a penniless man (having already been named by Rome as Archbishop of Manila), having spent whatever little wealth he had for the diocese, and his funeral coincided with that of Gaspar I de Quiroga y Vela, Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, Archbishop of Toledo (the richest archdiocese at that time in all Christendom), Primate of Spain, thus putting members of the Royal Council in the difficult position of choosing which funeral to attend. The King, who, upon learning that Fray Domingo had only six reales in possession at the time of his death, had paid for the cost of the bishop’s funeral, ordered the Royal Council to attend the funeral of the poor Bishop of Manila.

During the absence of Fray Domingo, and most especially, during the sede vacante, the diocese was administered by the deceased bishop’s zealous and loyal companion and provisor, Fray Cristóbal de Salvatierra, a fellow Dominican, appointed administrator of the diocese by Fray Domingo, who travelled so large an area, always barefoot, to carry out his mission in many places including Nueva Segovia, but mainly in Bataan.

On 14 August 1595, Clement VIII (who made it his mission to diminish Spanish control over the papacy), responding to the request of the Spanish crown (made upon proposal of Fray Domingo), sent out four bulls to Spain: one for the elevation of the Diocese of Manila into the rank of an archdiocese; three for creating three suffragan dioceses. The bull for Manila bore the incipit Super universas orbis ecclesias; whereas the other three bulls the incipit Super specula militantis Ecclesiae, and apparently carried the same preamble or prooemium, but differed in their specific contents.

We do not have the full text of the bull for Manila. As such, we reproduce here the putative prooemium of the bull.

[Image to follow]

These bulls were immediately followed by four reales cédulas that confirmed the ordinances. It is interesting to note that each of these bulls specifically affirmed the virtue of the patronato real, a privilege that would only be renounced in 1898 by Fray Bernardino Nozaleda y Villa, Archbishop of Manila, immediately after the American squadron defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, an event that was commemorated in the 1912 Almanaque on 1 May as the Gloriosa Derrota de la escuadra española en la Bahía de Manila en 1898.

With the elevation of Manila into an archdiocese, its second prelate, the Franciscan Fray Ignacio de Santibánez, became at the same time the second bishop and first archbishop, whose suffragan bishops were the ordinaries of Lallo, Naga, and Cebu. In the course of the centuries, these dioceses were also raised to archdiocesan status, and, attendant with the prevailing religious atmosphere, the ecclesiastic territory of Manila was broken to erect new dioceses.

The circumscription of the Ecclesiastic Province of Manila encompasses the suffragan dioceses of Antipolo, Cubao, Imus, Kalookan, Malolos, Novaliches, Parañaque, Pasig, and San Pablo.

Diocese of Imus and Diocese of Malolos
The Diocese of Imus and the Diocese of Malolos were created on 25 November 1961 when Pope John XXIII issued the bull Christifidelium consulere.

Diocese of San Pablo
The Diocese of San Pablo was created on 28 November 1966 when Pope Paul VI issued the bull Ecclesiarum perampla.

Diocese of Antipolo
The Diocese of Antipolo was created on 24 February 1982 when Pope John Paul II issued the bull Quoniam in recte.

Diocese of Novaliches
The Diocese of Novaliches was created on 7 December 2002 when Pope John Paul II issued the bull Animarum utilitati.

Diocese of Parañaque
The Diocese of Parañaque was created on 7 December 2002 when Pope John Paul II issued the bull Ad efficacius.

Diocese of Cubao
The Diocese of Cubao was created on 28 June 2003 when Pope John Paul II issued the bull Quo satius.

Diocese of Kalookan
The Diocese of Kalookan was created on 28 June 2003 when Pope John Paul II issued the bull Quoniam quaelibet.

Diocese of Pasig
The Diocese of Pasig was created on 28 June 2003 when Pope John Paul II issued the bull Dei claritas.

The bulls issued in the 20th century were taken from the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. The bull for Manila was taken from the Colección de documentos inéditos.

Thursday, 23 May 2013


Haec pagina, una ex futuris paginis de hac re, latinitate locorum nominum, ex qua sententia siglum LLN abstrahitur, harum Insularum scilicet Philippinarum, semetipsam occupat, quaeque eadem nomina tam quae historice interpretabantur ad sermonem latinam quam quae iamiamque interpretantur. Haudquauqam utile forsitan hoc  conamen prima facie lectori fatuitatibus nostris adstricto nihilominus sit : quod sermo latina extra sacrosanctam Romanam Ecclesiam, nempe cultricem hanc aeternam linguam et conservatricem ; atque nonnullas iustitiae aulas, quibus iurisprudentia non tantum Ciceronis reliquorumque legisperitorum antiquorum sed etiam novorum et recentiorum legislatorum et philosophorum in sententiis hoc sermone latino evulgatis exponebatur, usa paene mortuus est : sed in hac exercitatione permanemus ne mundum saeculumque eruditionibus nostris insulsis contaminemus sed cupientes nimis uti tempus nostrum otiosum vitemus corruptelam pigritietis socordiaeque ; simulque prohibeamus stultam latinitatem eorundem nominum earundem Insularum, tam stulta ut stultitiam semetipsam puderet.

Hae Insulae sitae in Asia Meridiorientali inter coordinata 14° 35′ Sept. 121° 0′ Ort. appellatae erant Philippinae, nomen quod Roderico López de Villalobos duabus insulis Samaro et Leyti datum erat, in honorem Principis Philippi II. Ab hispanico tempori, Insulae dividebantur in tribus partibus secundum distributionem insularum, hoc est, in Luconia, Bisaiis, et Mindanao. Luconia vel Insula Luconiensis maxima pars est Insularum Philippinarum et sita ad septentrionalem earundem. Bisaiae vel Insulae Bisaiae seu Insulae Bisaiorum sunt minima pars et admodum perfracta dispersaque, quae sunt sitae in medio Luconiae et Mindanai. Mindanaum vel Insula Mindanaënsis est pars media sitaque ad meridionalem.

Regiones, e 7 107 insulis de quibus patria constat, harum Insularum sedecim numerantur, quibus septem sunt luconienses, tres bisaiae, et sex mindanaënses. Regio quaelibet sedem procurationis, id est, nucleum vel locum principalem seu primum inter pares habet.

Tabella regionum Reipublicae Philippinae civilium

Ita prolatis regionibus, inchoëmus hanc latinitatem cum RCN, quae significat iuxta tabellam supradatam Regio Capitalis Nationalis, et quae est caput totius Reipublicae Philippinae. Caput huius regionis atque culturalis cunctarum Insularum urbs Manilana est, ex antiquis urbibus Insularum Philippinarum Hispanis conditis. Ex ista regione constat terra vocata Metropolis Manilensis, vulgo « Metro Manila ». Caput administrativum tum urbs Chesopolitana est.

Tabella urbium municipiique Regionis Capitalis Nationalis

Etymologia horum adiectivorum, id est, verborum luconiensis, bisaia, atque mindanaënsis, huc explicatur. Verbum luconiensis venit de nomine loci Luconia, quod est nomen latinum insulae maximae Insularum Philippinarum nuncupatae hispanice seu philippinice « Luzón ». Hoc autem venit de luconiensi verbo « Lusón ». Europaei primi qui huic venerunt mundi Asiaeque regioni fuerunt lusitani, quibus insula vocata erat « Luçonia » vel « Luçon » et autochthoni appellati erant « luções ». Rationabiliter latinitas nominis Luconia orta est ex ablatione cedillae vel cedigliae vel zetulae a littera ç. Praeterea tamen, quod « Luçonia » latinata est ut « Luzonia », littera ç visigothica minuscula litterae Z, eidem incolae vocari possint luzonienses.

Latinitas verbi « bisayâ » usa est inprimis in litteris annuis missionariorum iesuitarum evulgatis eadem Societate Iesu. In his litteris, substantivum « bisaia » commune est, id est, potest in masculinum intellegi atque in femininum. Hispanice postmodum « bisayo » pro masculino acceptabatur. Hodie, verbum abstractum ex alterna orthographia hispanica verbi cum littera v, de quo verbo insulae bisaiae philippinice et anglice nuncupantur « Visayas ».

Item de adiectivo « mindanaënsis ». Substantivum istud insulae ad meridiem insularum bisaiarum incolis primum applicabatur ab eisdem missionariis iesuiticis, praesertim eis autochthonibus musulmanis, qui depraedabantur et latrocinabantur missiones sedesque plantatas in ipsis insulis bisaiis, atque rapiebant incolas et flamines vel eosdem internecabant. Hoc venit vocamen de vocabulo insulae, quod ab illo tempori usque ad hoc vocatur vulgo « Mindanao ».

Sunday, 19 May 2013

Feast of Saint Pudentiana

Saint Pudentiana, Virgin, is one of the secondary patronesses of the Philippines, the other one being Saint Rose of Saint Mary of Lima. Her feastday falls on 19 May, which happens to be this year’s Whitsuntide. The Missale Romanum assigns 19 May as the Feast of Saint Peter Celestine, Confessor, and Saint Pudentiana is only commemorated. In Spanish, she is known as Santa Potenciana, the namesake of a 15th-century Spanish anchoress whose feast falls on 15 April.

Santa Potenciana, virgen
patrona de las Islas Filipinas

19 de mayo

Santa Potenciana, anacoreta
venerada en Villanueva de la Reina

15 de abril

Being one of the principal patronesses of Philippine Islands for almost half a millennium, her feast had the rank of duplex. From the Commune Sanctorum of the 1856 Breviarium for the Dominican Order in the Philippines, the feast is celebrated as a totum duplex (= duplex I classis and duplex II classis of the Breviarium Romanum; ­= festum sermonis maius of the Breviarium Cisterciense; = duplex maius of the Breviarium Carmelitanum; that is, the highest rank)which coincides with the rank inscribed in the 1887 Directorium for the Augustinian Recollect Order of the Philippines, wherein the feast is celebrated asduplex I classis. Here, 19 May 1887 being the Feast of the Ascension of Our Lord Jesus Christ (followed by an Octave, and then by Whitsuntide, also with an Octave), the feast was transferred to 8 June. The Cebuano Recollects, moreover, 8 June being impeded by the Feast of Saint Boniface, Bishop and Martyr, further transferred it to 18 June, with the same dignity. In both books, she is styled as the Patrona Principalis harum Insularum.

Divine Office
From the Directorium, we see the arrangement of the parts of the Office of Saint Pudentiana.

This arrangement was observed amongst Filipino Augustinian Recollects. Notice that in the second nocturn, only the first lesson was proper, while the second and third lessons were taken from the Common of Virgins. Amongst the Dominicans, the first and second lessons of the second nocturn were proper, and only the third was taken from the Common. The proper lessons are given below:

The liturgical colour for both Office and Mass is white. Saint Pudentiana is not classified as a martyr; it is not mentioned in her vita in the lessons that she suffered martyrdom. Her sister, Saint Praxedes, who survived her, died a martyr’s death.

Holy Mass

Above, we note that the Mass of Saint Pudentiana is taken from the Common of Virgins. The collect in her Office naturally comes from this very same Common. From the great chantbooks of Baclayon, a mission taken over by Recollects after the expulsion of the Jesuits, we see the common propers inscribed (at least, in the index, as the folio containing the first part of the Introit has disappeared) with Saint Rose of Saint Mary of Lima, the Principal Patroness of Indies (and, hence, of the Philippines). From the 1962 Missale Romanum, we have below her common propers:

The collect, secret, and postcommunion from this Mass is used in most places for the Commemoration of Saint Pudentiana in the Mass of Saint Peter Celestine.

Suppression of the Feast
Until the early 20th century, the Feast of Saint Pudentiana reportedly was kept in the Philippines as a quasi-day of obligation. Her name appears on most exemplars of the then common almanaque or kalendaryong Tagalog. In the 60’s, Filipino bishops petitioned Rome to abolish the feast in the Philippines. Apparently, this petitioned was approved, and the Feast ceased to be celebrated after September 1963.

National Church in Rome
In the early 90’s, Pope John Paul II instructed Camillo Cardinal Ruini to find an appropriate church for the Filipino community in Italy. On 10 July 1991, Cardinal Ruini phoned Father Remo Bati, SDB, Chaplain for Filipino migrants, relaying the good news that a suitable church has been found on the Viminal Hill. On 6 October 1991, the Cappellania Cattolica Filippina was inagaurated in the Basilica di Santa Pudenziana.

Exterior of the Basilica di Santa Pudenziana

Façade of the Basilica di Santa Pudenziana

It is an ancient church, one of the domestic churches in Rome, and is perhaps the oldest place of Christian worship in Rome, having been built over the house of Pudens, father of Saint Pudentiana, during the reign of Pope Saint Pius I. It was established in A.D. 112 as a titular church, and the current Cardinal-Priest of the titulus Sanctae Pudentianae is Joachim Cardinal Meisner.

The basilica boasts many works of art with Saint Pudentiana and her sister Saint Praxedes, the most prominent of which is the apsidal mosaic. There are, however, lesser known works of art which feature both saints, such as the one below showing Saint Pudentiana collecting the blood of martyrs and Saint Praxedes placing severed heads in a well.

S. Prassede e S. Pudenziana raccolgono il sangue dei martiri
Giovanni Paolo Rossetti

Another work of art is the painting depicting the entry of Saint Pudentiana in heaven.

L’apoteosi di Santa Pudenziana
Bernardino Nocchi

The minor basilica has since been the National Church of the Philippines in Rome.

Sunday, 12 May 2013

Protectresses of the Philippines

Saint Pudentiana

On 19 May 1571, Miguel López de Legazpi took possession of Manila, after Mass in honour of Saint Pudentiana, who was then declared patroness of the city and of the entire Islands. According to the 1877 Historia de la Santa Iglesia Metropolitana de Filipinas based on the manuscript of P. Francisco Moreno, a presbítero, after Saint Pudentiana was proclaimed general patroness of these Isles in 1571, her cultus gradually disappeared and her patronage became forgotten until such time that the Cabildo decided to appoint a protector for the realm. They decided to cast lots with the names of many Saints into an urn, and had a very young boy draw a name from the urn. The name inscribed was Santa Potenciana. It was then that a regidor stood up and stated that Manila was taken possession on her feast day. Her cultus was then revived, and she once again became the principal patroness of the Islands, a title that was never abrogated. Governor General Dasmariñas had a church dedicated to her in 1591, and another in 1592. Her relics arrived in the Philippines on 12 January 1595, and were received with great jubilation, paraded through the streets of Manila. They are presumed lost or destroyed during World War II. Until September 1963, her feast was obligatory.

Saint Rose of Saint Mary of Lima

On 11 August 1670, Pope Clement X issued the Bull Sacrosancti apostolatus cura, confirming Pope Clement X’s declaration of Bl. Rose of Lima as patroness of Peru, and extending her patronage to each province, realm, and region of the whole American continent, of the Philippines, and of the Indies. Quoting the Bull:
Nos, gloriosae B. Rosae praedictae, quae Ecclesiam universam bono Christi odore longe lateque perfundit, merita magno cum spirituali animi nostri gaudio recolentes, piisque et devotis dictorum Caroli regis et Mariannae reginae supplicationibus nobis super hoc humiliter porrectis favorabiliter annuere cupientes, ac memorati Clementis praedecessoris vestigiis inhaerentes, eamdem B. Rosam de S. Maria in universam et principaliorem patronam omnium et singularum provinciarum, regnorum, insularum, et regionum terrae firmae totius Americae, Philippinarum, et Indiarum, cum eisdem praerogativis, dicta auctoritate, tenore praesentium, eligimus pariter et declaramus.
The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary

On 7 September 1942, Pope Pius XII, moved by the request of the Filipino Bishops, issued the Bull Impositi Nobis Apostolici, placing the Philippines under the principal and universal patronage of the Immaculate Conception, declaring Saints Pudentia and Rose of Lima as secondary patronesses. Quoting the Bull: 
Audito quoque Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinali Episcopo Praenestino, Sacrae Rituum Congregationis Praefecto, certa scientia ac matura deliberatione Nostris deque Apostolicae Nostrae potestatis plenitudine, praesentium Litterarum tenore, perpetuumque in modum Beatissimam Virginem Mariam titulo Immaculatam Conceptionem primariam et universalem Patronam ac Sanctas Virgines Pudentianam et Rosam Limanam Patronas secundarias constituimus et declaramus, adiectis iuribus privilegiisque, ita ut quotannis in Missa atque in officio, divino earundem Patronarum festivitates ad rubricarum normas rite celebrari queant. Haec decernimus, edicimus, statuentes praesentes Litteras firmas, validas atque efficaces iugiter exstare ac permanere.

Paradigm shift

I hope this is the only time an entry on this blog is peopled with so many references to the first person.

I read blogs. Out of habit and out of duty. I have longs since stopped reading contemporary news as they are to me the summary of all things repugnant. Not so much of the material but of the writers. (Although I do not have the wealth of the plutocratic haciendera known to us cheap telenovela viewers as Doña Angélica de Santibánez, I may have the same amount of vitriol as she does.) Facundo, her ever-devoted henchman, can probably write better news than most news mills.

I read blogs. In fact, I’m a lurker, and I hope this is the only blogspeak I learn. Lurking is akin to invisibility, which is a glorious device for the proverbial wallflower. I’d rather be invisible at all times than be an aphoristic example for the dictum: 
In times of peace, invincible. In times of war, invisible.
I am not a wallflower, though. I just do not like broadcasting my opinion in a podium that is not Facebook.

Invisibility is not quite like anonymity. Invisibility is like a girl fantasising about Daniel Radcliffe fathering her future litter. The girl knows Daniel Radcliffe exists, but the poor British actor has no idea of the girl’s existence. Anonymity, on the other hand, is sending him an unsigned postcard. That’s where it gets a little interesting and creepy.

My first blogging experience was due to a university English writing class. We were exploring patchwork story writing, wherein each member of a group develops a certain segment of the storyline by updating a blogpost. It never held up, both blog and story, and they both ended somewhere in that fathomless sea of numbers and codes.

Quoting Holy Writ:
Infixus sum in limo profundi, et non est substantia.
Good! I managed to manoeuver towards Latin, which somehow provides a good preview of the future contents of this blog.

Not linguistics, you silly!

Holy Mother Church. The Philippine Church, in particular. There are people out there already writing for the Church, and I am relieved to enter that community as a mote, barely detectible and conspicuous.

In case it escaped you, this blog is Catholic. And just to polarise, you may append before it the adjective traditional.

With this, I am placing this blog under the protection of the Holy Cross, whose Invention is honoured in the Philippine Islands throughout the month of May, and of Saint Pudentiana, the first patroness of the Islands. This blog will surely bungle my already blasted circadian rhythm. My only consolation is the hope that it can be informative.

Ut Deus interretialia haec commentaria conservare digneris.